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A protein that increases the production of a gene product in DNA transcription.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing. This central method in epigenomic research allows genome-wide analysis of enhancers and chromatin state.
The material which makes up the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e. eukaryotes). Chromatin is composed of protein, RNA, and DNA.
Method that uses antibodies to check for certain antigens (markers) in a sample of tissue. The antibodies are usually linked to an enzyme or a fluorescent dye to visualize where they bind. IHC is used to determine the tissue distribution of an antigen of interest in health and disease.
Micro-RNA (also written as microRNA) is a small (about 22 nucleotides) single-stranded non-coding RNA molecule. miRNAs function via base-pairing with complementary sequences within mRNA molecules to RNA to silence and post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression.
Method used to detect the expression of thousands of genes at the same time. Microarray experiments allow description of genome-wide expression changes in health and disease.
Region of DNA upstream of a gene where proteins (such as RNA polymerase and transcription factors) bind to initiate transcription of that gene.
All the genetic promoters of an organism.
A protein that inhibits the expression of a gene product in DNA transcription.
Detection and quantitative analysis of messenger RNA molecules in a biological sample. RNA-seq allows description of the transcriptome, which is key to connect the information in a genome with its functional protein expression.
three prime untranslated region (3′-UTR)
Region of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon. The 3′-UTR often contains regulatory regions that influence gene expression post-transcriptionally.
transcription factor (TF)
A protein that binds to a specific DNA sequence and regulates gene expression by promoting or suppressing transcription. Transcription factors bind to either promoter or enhancer regions adjacent to the genes that they regulate.
The set of all RNA transcripts, including coding and non-coding, in an individual or a population of cells.